Habitat Summary

The Bay hosts a variety of habitats that contributes to the biodiversity of the Houston-Galveston region. All of these habitats are vital to the ecological functions of the Bay. Currently, at least 3 of the 4 key coastal habitats assessed for the report card are under stress, earning habitat a D overall: Freshwater WetlandsUnderwater Grasses, and Oyster Reefs. The good news is, Saltwater Wetlands are beginning to benefit from the successes of regulatory protection and restoration efforts, and appear to be maintaining.

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What We Can do

  • Volunteer to restore habitat around the Bay by joining restoration organizations or events.
  • Stay informed about proposed construction and dredging projects.
  • Conserve land by donating it or establishing conservation easements.


Wetlands are found at the transition between land and aquatic environments. They filter runoff, serve as a buffer for tides and storm surges, and reduce shoreline erosion. Saltwater wetlands are protected by the Clean Water Act and acreage is currently maintaining, earning a C. But many freshwater wetlands remain unprotected from development, and are disappearing at a greater rate than they are being preserved or restored, resulting in a D.

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Freshwater Wetlands

Provide important services, such as floodwater storage, to people living around the Bay

Saltwater Wetlands

Provide storm surge protection and vital coastal habitat

What We Can do

Choose Conservation

  • Learn more about the benefits of wetlands, including how wetlands fight flooding in Houston, on HARC’s blog.
  • Join a wetland restoration effort.
  • Stay informed about development projects that threaten wetlands.

Overall Saltwater Wetlands


Overall Freshwater Wetlands

Underwater Grasses

Underwater grasses grow in shallow, clear water where light can penetrate and allow the grass to perform photosynthesis. They provide an important habitat for juvenile species of fish and shellfish. Despite some areas of recovery, the amount of seagrass in the bay has been significantly reduced by poor water clarity, salinity changes, and sea level rise and subsidence.

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Underwater Grasses

Native species of seagrass represent an important Bay habitat

What We Can do

Keep the Water Clear


Overall Underwater Grasses

Oyster Reefs

Oysters filter silt and contaminants from Galveston Bay, improving water quality and clarity. Oysters are also an important fishery. The Bay’s oyster reefs, home to the oysters and a variety of other animals, have significantly declined over time due to the historical overharvesting of oyster shells, the damaging storm surge of Hurricane Ike in 2008, drought, fishing pressure, and disease. Although we know that oyster reefs are under stress, available oyster reef data is outdated, and the current status cannot be thoroughly evaluated. As a result, the grade for oyster reefs is I for Incomplete.

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Oyster Reef

Essential for the Galveston Bay ecosystem in addition to oysters on the half shell

What We Can do

Fight for the Filters


Overall Oyster Reefs

An essential habitat for the Galveston Bay ecosystem

Want more? Check the grades on other Indicators.

Water Quality
Pollution Events & Sources
Human Health Risk
Coastal Change